Bi-Lingual teaching and learning: Effectiveness and challenges in postgraduate studies

  • Lee Kar Ling Registry Office, INTI International College, Penang, Malaysia
Keywords: bi-lingual teaching and learning, teaching and learning methodology effectiveness, postgraduate studies, higher education

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of bilingual teaching and learning methodology for Vietnamese postgraduate students from 2011-2012. Overall, the findings indicated relatively positive outcomes in most of the spectrum evaluated or assessed. These findings were then compared with previous researches and to ascertain the applicability to fundamental theories underpinning bilingual education to determine the correlation between theory and practice. This research provided an in-depth contextual based research that contributed to an extensive understanding of the effectiveness of the adoption of bilingual teaching and learning at postgraduate level within ASEAN countries. The research will also provide a platform for development nations to gain accesses to the required knowledge, skills, capabilities, and competencies that have thus far eluded them due to language barrier, thereby providing these nations with the impetus to grow and develop further as a nation via the effective development of the country’s human capital.

 DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i4.167

References

Alanis, I., & Rodriguez, M. A. (2008). Sustaining a dual language immersion program: Features of success. Journal of Latinos and Education, 7(4), 305-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15348430802143378

Alkenhead, G. S. (2001). Students’ ease in crossing cultural borders into school sciences. Science Education, 85(2), 180-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-237X(200103)85:2%3C180::AID-SCE50%3E3.0.CO;2-1

Banks, J. A. (2010). Multicultural education: Characteristics and goals. In J. A. Banks & C. A. Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Budach, G., Erfurt, J., & Kunkel, M. (2008). Écoles plurilingues - multilingual schools: Konzepte, Institutionen und Akteure: Internationale Perspektiven [Multilingual schools: Concepts, institutions and actors: International perspectives] (pp. 7-51). Frankfurt am Main: Lang.

Burdick-Will, J., & Gomez, C. (2006). Assimilation versus multiculturalism: Bilingual education and the Latino challenges. Journal of Latinos and Education, 5(3), 209-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s1532771xjle0503_4

Busch, B. (2011). Trends and innovative practices in multilingual education in Europe: An overview. International Review of Education, 57(5-6), 541-549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11159-011-9257-1

Carger, C. L. (2012). Early literacy development for linguistically diverse learners. Illinois Reading Council Journal, 40(4), 12-18. Retrieved from www.illinoisreadingcouncil.org

Choi, J. K. (2003). Language attitudes and the future of bilingualism: The case of Paraguay. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 6(2), 81-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13670050308667774

Cloud, N., Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E. V. (2000). Dual language instruction: A handbook for enrichment education. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Coelho, E. (1998). Teaching and learning in multicultural schools. Clevedon, UK: Miltilingual Matters.

Collier, V. P., & Thomas, W. P. (2004). The astounding effectiveness of dual language education for all. NABE Journal of Research and Practice, 2(1), 1-20.

DiGiovanni, M. (2010, May 26). CU foundation builds up community with bilingual teller training. Credit Union Times. Retrieved from http://www.cutimes.com

Duarter, J. (2011). Migrants’ educational success through innovation: The case of the Hamburg bilingual schools. International Review of Education, 57(5-6), 631-649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11159-011-9251-7

Gao, F. (2010). Bilingual education among ethnic Koreans in China: Ethnic language maintenance and upward social mobility. Chinese Education and Society, 43(1), 82-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.2753/CED1061-1932430107

Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E. & Wright, K. L. (2010). English speech acquisition in 3 to 5-year old children learning Russian and English. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 41(4), 429-444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2009/09-0059)

Gorter. D., & Cenoz, J. (2011). Multilingual education for European minority languages: The Basque country and Friesland. International Review of Education, 57(5-6), 651-666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11159-011-9248-2

Hoang, L. (2013, April 24). Vietnam’s bilingual experiment. International New York Times. Retrieved from www.latitude.blogs.nytimes.com

Irby, B. J., Tong, F., & Lara-Alecio, R. (2011). The mutual symbiosis between inclusive bilingual education and multicultural education. Multicultural Perspectives, 13(3), 130-137.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15210960.2011.594374

Jia, G., & Fuse, A. (2007). Acquisition of English grammatical morphology by native Mandarin-speaking children and adolescents: Age-related differences. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(5), 1280-1299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2007/090)

Lara-Alecio, R., Tong, F., Irby, B. J., & Mathes, P. (2009). Teachers’ pedagogical differences among bilingual and structured English immersion kindergarten classrooms in a randomized trial study. Bilingual research Journal, 32(1), 77-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15235880902965938

Lindholm-Leary, K. J. (2005). Review of research and best practices on effective features of DL education programs. Retrieved from www.lindholm-leary.com

Lotherington, H. (2004). Bilingual education. In A. Davies & C. Elder (Eds.), The handbook of applied linguistic (pp. 695-718). Malden: Blackwell.

Martinez, G. C. (2011). My underdevelopment. Dissent, 58(1), 40-41.

Neugebauer, S. R., & Currie-Rubin, R. (2009). Read-alouds in Calca, Peru: A bilingual indigenous context. The Reading Teacher, 62(5), 396-405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1598/RT.62.5.3

Pai, Y., Adler, S. A., & Shadiow, L. K. (2006). Cultural foundations of education (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

Pang, V. O. (2001). Multicultural education: A caring-centered, reflective approach. Boston: McGraw Hill.

Reyes, M. D.LL. (2012). Spontaneous biliteracy examining Latino students’ untapped potential. Theory into Practice, 51(4), 248-255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2012.726052

Reyes, S. A., & Vallone, T. L. (2007). Part I: Advancing the conversation: Toward an understanding of two-way bilingual immersion education: Constructing identity through a critical, additive, bilingual/ bicultural pedagogy. Multicultural Perspectives, 9(3), 3-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15210960701443433

Rojas, E. D., & Reagan, T. (2003). Linguistic Human Rights: A new perspective on bilingual education. Educational Foundations, 17(1), 5-19. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ775212)

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2011). Business Research Methods: A skill-building approach (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Senesac, B. V. K. (2002). Two-way bilingual immersion: A portrait of quality schooling. Bilingual Research Journal, 26(1), 85-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2002.10668700

Shi, L. F. (2011). How “proficient” is proficient? Subjective proficiency as a predictor of bilingual listeners’ recognition of English words. American Journal of Audiology, 20(1), 19-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1059-0889(2011/10-0013)

Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. P. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students’ long-term academic achievement. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED475048)

Tong, F., Lara-Alecio, R., Irby, B. J., Mathes, P., & Kwok, O.-M. (2008). Accelerating early academic oral English development in transitional bilingual and structural English immersion programs. American Educational Research Journal, 45(4), 1011-1044. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831208320790

Valdez, E. O. (2001). Winning the battle, losing the war: Bilingual teachers and post-proposition 227. The Urban Review, 33(3), 237-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010318121558

Ziegler, G. (2011). Innovation in learning and development in multilingual and multicultural contexts: Principles learned from a higher educational programme in Luxembourg. International Review of Education, 57(6), 685-703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11159-011-9252-6

Zikmund, G., Babin, B. J., Carr, J. C., & M. Griffin (2010). Business Research Method (8th ed.). NJ: McGraw-Hill.

Published
2013-11-22
How to Cite
Ling, L. K. (2013). Bi-Lingual teaching and learning: Effectiveness and challenges in postgraduate studies. Higher Learning Research Communications, 3(4), 32-48. https://doi.org/10.18870/hlrc.v3i4.167
Section
Articles