Implementation Through Innovation: A Literature-Based Analysis of the Tuning Project
Tuning Educational Structures in Europe is perhaps the most important higher education innovation platform nowadays. The main objective of the Tuning Project is to develop a tangible approach to implement the action lines of the Bologna Process; thus, implementation and innovation are closely linked in Tuning. However, during its development, Tuning has evolved into a complex, multilevel policy implementation toolset with a worldwide significance. The purpose of this article is to present the complex nature of the Tuning Project, the environment and dynamics of its development, and the mechanisms of its operation from a multilevel implementation perspective, through a literature-review-based analysis.
Beneitone, P., & Yarosh, M. (2015). Tuning impact in Latin America: Is there implementation beyond design? Tuning Journal for Higher Education, 3, 187–216. GShttps://doi.org/10.18543/tjhe-3(1)-2015pp187-216
Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university (4th ed.). Glasgow, Scotland: Bell and Bain.
Birtwistle, T., Brown, C., & Wagenaar, R. (2016). A long way to go … A study on the implementation of the learning-outcomes based approach in the EU. Tuning Journal for Higher Education, 3, 429–462. https://doi.org/10.18543/tjhe-3(2)-2016pp429-463
Cerych, L., & Sabatier P. (1992). Implementation of higher education reforms. In B. Clark & G. Neave (Eds.), The encyclopedia of higher education (pp. 1003–1014). Oxford, United Kingdom: Pergamon Press.
Cesar, L. J. T. (2015). Diversity and convergence in higher education: An analysis of Tuning European Union and Tuning Latin America international cooperation programmes (Master’s thesis). Department for Continuing Education Research and Educational Management, Danube University. Retrieved from https://tampub.uta.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/98968/GRADU-1463134223.pdf?sequence=1
Corbett, A. (2011). Ping pong: Competing leadership for reform in EU higher education 1998–2006. European Journal of Education, 46, 36–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3435.2010.01466.x
Elmore, F. (1980). Backward mapping: Implementation research and policy decisions. Political Science Quarterly, 94, 601–616. https://doi.org/10.2307/2149628
Evans, N., & Henrichsen, L. (2008). Long-term strategic incrementalism: An approach and model for bringing change in higher education. Innovative Higher Education, 33, 111–124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-008-9067-y
González, J., & Wagenaar, R. (Eds.). (2008). Universities' contribution to the Bologna Process: An introduction (2nd ed.). Bilbao, Spain: University of Duesto. Retrieved from http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/images/stories/Publications/ENGLISH_BROCHURE_FOR_WEBSITE.pdf
González, J., & Yarosh, M. (2013). Building degree profiles: The Tuning approach. Tuning Journal for Higher Education, 1, 37–69. https://doi.org/10.18543/tjhe-1(1)-2013pp37-69
Halász, G. (2012). Az oktatás az Európai Unióban, Tanulás és együttműködés [Education in the European Union: Learning and cooperation]. Budapest, Hungary: Új Mandátum Könyvkiadó.
Halász, G. (2017). The spread of the learning outcomes approaches across countries, subsystems and levels: A special focus on teacher education. European Journal of Education, 52, 80–91. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12201
Hill, M., & Hupe, P. (2002). Implementing public policy. London, United Kingdom: SAGE.
Kennedy, D. (2007). Writing and using learning outcomes: A practical guide. Cork, Ireland: University College Cork.
Knight, J. (2013). A model for the regionalisation of higher education: The role and contribution of tuning. Tuning Journal for Higher Education 1, 105–125. https://doi.org/10.18543/tjhe-1(1)-2013pp105-125
Lažetić, P. (2010). Managing the Bologna Process at the European level: Institution and actor dynamics. European Journal of Education, 45, 549–562. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3435.2010.01451.x
Luzzatto, G. (2011, October 5). The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) beyond 2010: Main achievements, priorities, gaps and challenges. Hearing of the European Parliament – Committee on Culture and Education on the European Higher Education Area: State of play. Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/document/activities/cont/201110/20111013ATT29146/20111013ATT29146EN.pdf
Meister-Scheytt, C., & Scheytt, T. (2005). The complexity of change in universities. Higher Education Quarterly, 59, 76–99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2273.2005.00282.x
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. (2009). ECTS users' guide. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/repository/education/tools/docs/ects-guide_en.pdf
Pressman, J. L., & Wildavsky, A. (1984). Implementation: How great expectations in Washington are dashed in Oakland; or, Why it’s amazing that federal programs work at all (3rd ed.). Berkley, CA: University of California Press. (Original work published 1973)
Publications Office of the European Union. (2015). ECTS users' guide. Retrieved from http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ects-users-guide_en.pdf
Sabatier, P. (2005). From policy implementation to policy change: A personal odyssey. In A. Gornitzka, M. Kogan, & A. Amaral (Eds.), Reform and change in higher education: Analysing policy implementation (pp. 17–35). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3411-3
Sabatier, P., & Mazmanian, D. (1979). The conditions of effective implementation. Policy Analysis, 5, 481–504.
Tuning Latin America Project. (2013). CLAR, Latin America reference credit. Retrieved from http://www.tuningal.org/es/publicaciones/doc_download/107-clar-latin-american-reference-credit-english-version
Witte, J. K. (2006). Change of degrees and degrees of change: Comparing adaptations of European higher education systems in the context of the Bologna Process (doctoral dissertation). Center for Higher Education Policy Studies, University of Twente. Retrieved from https://www.utwente.nl/en/bms/cheps/education/phd-page/cheps-alumni-and-their-theses/2006wittedissertation.pdf
Ziegele, F., & van Vught, F. (2013). “U-Multirank” und “U-Map” als Ansätze zur Schaffung von Transparenz im europäischen und globalen Hochschulsystem, Konzepte und Erfahrungen [“U-Multirank“ and “U-Map“ as two approaches towards increasing transparency in the European and in the global higher education system: Concepts and experiences]. Beiträge zur Hochschulforschung, 35, 50–74.
Copyright (c) 2017 Krisztián Pálvölgyi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with HLRC agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and publishing rights without restrictions and grant the journal right of first publication. Authors grant Laureate Education, Inc. a license to publish and distribute the work under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in HLRC.
- Authors who submit manuscripts are to declare that their submission to HLRC is not simultaneously under consideration for publication in another journal and has not been published elsewhere previously.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the HLRC's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in HLRC.
- Pre-refereeing and pre-publication: To ensure consistency in the information available to researchers and to safeguard the blind peer-review process, authors are asked to abstain from self-archiving or posting online the submitted manuscript before the review process is complete.
- Post-refereeing and post-publication: Authors are free to self-archive and distribute the peer-reviewed and editorially reviewed version of their work. As a full open access journal, there is no embargo period. Authors are encouraged to archive the published PDF version, which includes a suggested citation with all pertinent information, including a digital object identifier (DOI). If the author decides to self-archive or distribute the work in a format other than the published PDF, the author must include the assigned DOI and acknowledge the work was first published in HLRC.