Correction and Retraction Policies

Corrections to Published Work

Authors must inform the journal’s editors (see the Contact Us section of the website) of any errors they notice (or have been informed of) in their published article. Corrections are made at the journal’s discretion. If a correction is necessary, a correction notice will be published online and linked to the article. The editor in chief may consider correcting the actual article (PDF) online. The editors will add a correction notice, either as a footnote or at the end of the article, identifying what content has been changed since the article’s initial publication and publish an erratum.


Journal editors consider retractions when evidence is found of plagiarism (to include self-plagiarism and bilingual plagiarism), multiple submissions, duplicate publications, data fabrication and falsification, deception, and/or copyright infringement. The editors may publish an expression-of-concern notice if and while an article is under investigation. If a retraction is necessary, the editors will include a retraction notice with the published version of the article. The PDF will be replaced with a version containing the original text but watermarked “Retracted”.

In rare cases legal concerns may require the editors to remove the original content. In such cases the editors will leave the metadata (title and authors) and replace the text with a note stating the article has been removed for legal reasons. A retraction notice will also be published online.